b'EARLY SETTLERS The situationseems overwhelmingWilliam Nickerson of Yarmouth was the fi rst Englishman to buyuntil we realize that just asland in Chatham in 1656 through an agreement with the Mono- the problems stem from our individual actions, the moyick sachem Mattaquason. After much litigation with Plym- solutions spring from our outh Colony, he fi nally received deeds for his original purchaseindividual actions as well.in 1672 and subsequently bought more, until he owned 4000 acres in Monomoit. Other settlers followed.Gradually the set-tlers cut down the forests of oaks, pines and walnuts for wood for farms and cleared the thickets of huge cedars for cranberry bogs. Apparently the few Native Americans left in the settlement lived near the saltwater, where they farmed and fi shed, and the English settlers lived near the freshwater ponds so they would have plenty of water for their cattle. They lived peacefully together, but the native population and culture slowly disappeared until there was only one full blooded Native American left on the Lower Cape. His name was Micah Rafe (or Ralph) and he died in 1816. Cape Cod NeighborSquid: A Mollusk ofa Different Color Squid (Loligo pealei) are seasonal Cape visitors. They arrive in Chatham waters in late April/early May from their winter offshore home.They are caught in weirs in commercial quantitites for only one week in May in Nantucket Sound.These mollusks are the fastest swimmers in the invertebrate world, achieving speeds up to 20 miles an hour. Caught at night on jigs when they are most active, they areshed for bait, but also make excellent food.An effective predator and an elusive prey, squidcan change colors and squirt ink tointimidate their enemies.Cape Cod NeighborHerring: Swimming Against the FlowSilver Herring (Alosa pseudoharengus), also known as alewives and Blueback Herring (Alosa aestivalis) spend much of their lives in the open ocean. They eat plankton and swim in large schools, covering great distances throughout the Atlantic. As anadromous fi sh (species that live most of their life in the ocean but return to spawn in fresh or brackish waters), these two herring species return each Spring to some of our freshwater ponds and streams. In Chatham, the onlyplace to witness this mass migration is at the Ryders Cove Herring Run to Stillwater Pond and Lovers Lake.Page 19bluepages.indd 19 8/26/2009 1:49:52 PM'